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Rhytion 4. Dreros 9. Inatos Cave Kounavoi Phaistos Syme 5. Eleuth erna Kavou si Kourt es Praesos Vroka stro Figure On these grounds it has been assumed that what was actually discovered in Knossos was a group of Linear B tablets Forsdyke 42, —5. His military prowess, which is highly praised,8 as well as his political skills Il. For their role in the preparation of the pyre of Patroclus and the related saga see Stampolidis —2.

Nevertheless, Aristotle argues that the emergence of the authority of the Cretan kosmoi followed the abolition of king- ship Politics, a9— Most scholars attribute this change in settlement patterns to uneasiness caused by some threat from the sea, including the arrival of people from mainland Greece12 and perhaps some population decline , while others picture a more peaceful process, emphasise that similar sites existed throughout the Minoan period and elaborate on the social and economic agents that stimulated the change Rehak and Younger —8; Haggis ; Wallace ; Borgna In any case, the hilltops with no easy access to arable land were abandoned in the course of LM IIIC, in favour of more convenient sites at a lower altitude Nowicki —4, —9 , and the ensuing Early Iron Age witnessed no serious pattern of disruption.

The account, the historicity of which is challenged Osborne, Making: 11—12 , is discussed in Stampolidis forth- coming. Important later contributions include: Kanta ; Nowicki Whitley —7 has argued that the Knossian grave introduces a new conception of masculinity that emphasises the status of a man as a warrior these comments readily apply to the Pantanassa grave. It demonstrates that the ability of the individuals buried in Knossos and Pantanassa to accumulate and destroy wealth, as well as their special status that was mostly — but not solely — expressed through ideological claims focusing on warfare,16 was combined with a taste for products deriving from the East.

These contacts were largely mirrored by the Cypriot enterprises that involved exports of Black on Red to the Syro-Palestinian coast. The Pantanassa tomb discussed below and a recently discovered tomb at Palaepaphos-Plakes tomb Raptou —8 provide fresh evidence for this connection, as well as for the links between Crete and Cyprus besides, Catling had already noted the links between some items found in the Knossian tomb and others at the cemetery of Palaepaphos- Skales. For warrior tombs see also the contribution by Deger-Jalkotzy in this volume.

Although there were connections between Cyprus and Phoenicia already in the eleventh century Bikai , it is unclear whether Cypriots or Phoenicians ini- tiated them. The account is arranged according to classes of materials. Also: Johnston —1; Johnston , no. A wider repertory of fewer Phoenician vessels occurs, however, at this site during the late ninth to early eighth centuries Bikai —8; Johnston , no. Furthermore, a small number of Phoenician vases dating to the end of the ninth and mostly the eighth 19 Problems pertinent to this publication are discussed in: Johnston ; Sherratt Shaw and M.

The distribution26 of Phoenician vases within the island suggests that its eastern part,27 the one that lies close to the Syro- Palestinian coast, has not produced a single vase. Note, however, the occurrence of a Phoenician letter on an amphora from Gavalomouri: Stampolidis a: —19; Stampolidis and Karetsou , no. On the con- nections between Crete and Cyprus see note 2 above and note 36 below. The reference cited by Marinatos should have been to Stampolidis a not , where, however, Stampolidis provides a general discussion and does not directly involve the Samians in the distribution of these objects within Crete, at least before the later part of the seventh century.

Since then, some imported ivory pieces from the Knossos North Cemetery mostly tombs and Evely and a single item from Amnissos have appeared Stampolidis and Karetsou —2, no. Add an Egyptian blue scarab mentioned in Banou Add: Stampolidis and Karetsou , no. Shaw —9, ; Skon-Jedele and Dabney For general discussions see Stampolidis a: —4; Stampolidis a: 70—5.

Shaw — A collective study of these artefacts and their appeal to Cretan reli- gious beliefs would no doubt provide important insights. One of the earliest bronze vessels suggesting a link with the Syro-Palestinian coast is a bowl of Cypriot type that comes from a Knossian tomb, which dates to the late tenth to early ninth century, and carries a Phoenician, formulaic inscrip- tion of ownership Figure The class is represented in a few Aegean sites, including Knossos and the Idaean Cave.

The examples from the latter site, however, are more numerous than those in the rest of the Aegean taken together. The idea of travel- ling craftsmen also discussed in connection with metal items has recently been criticised by Muhly forthcoming , who suggests — based on literary evidence from the Near East — that craftsmen were under state control and their movements had to be negotiated at the highest level. For a brief discussion of this idea see Sakellarakis Add Catling c: —4. For the Knossian examples see Catling c: A large group of bronze bowls of various types has turned up in Crete.

Several examples come from the Idaean Cave, a few from the sanctuary at Palaikastro and single pieces from a sanctuary at Phaistos, as well as from tombs at Afrati and Eleutherna. For the recently discovered shield from Eleutherna see: Stampolidis and Karetsou , no. On the other hand, Markoe favours Eleutherna Markoe Also note that the workshop in ques- tion has been associated with some bronze objects. Although this resemblance has occasionally proved more apparent than real, it is often meaningful.

Funerary ritual Most of the gold jewellery that is attributed to the aforementioned workshop was found in the Tekke tholos tomb Knossos ,51 which was used from the end of the ninth to the beginning of the seventh century. Each contained a clay vase assigned to the end of the ninth century that was full of gold and other pieces of jewellery, as well as gold and silver ingots Figure Moreover, Boardman now admits he has become sceptical about the nature of these deposits which was one of his main arguments for the attribution of the tomb to Near Eastern immigrants and considers the possibility that the jewellery was buried there — and not placed in an urn — to avoid the attention of robbers Boardman forthcoming.

Also: comment by Stampolidis in Kourou and Karetsou ; Stampolidis a: Although precise dating is often hard, the cemetery was apparently established in the late ninth century, while most burials date to the seventh century.

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On the other hand, it is questionable whether this was the case in other Aegean sites, including Lefkandi Lemos Morris , which rests on a misunderstanding of the building phases the archaic phase, to which the armour is assigned, involved a single room , is eccentric in itself. The evidence from Rhytion suggests that before debating whether the custom is imported and how it was introduced in Crete, one should study its distribution within the island.

Kourou and Grammatikaki Religion and cult The orientalising aspects of some Cretan temples and sanctuaries have rather easily — especially for a region that displays strong religious continuity from Minoan times — been equated with the oriental essence of the ritual or the cult. Kommos temple B Shaw J. Both were open to the east, but the later temple B had a pillar at its entrance and included a hearth and a large block, into which three small pillars were socketed.

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It was thus assumed that the temple, which produced much of the Phoenician pottery discussed above, was erected and used by both Cretans and Phoenicians. Clearly, the erection of such a structure on Greek soil is unique and emphasises the privileged connection between Crete and the Near East.


According to this view, oriental, as well as Cretan elements were combined to produce a cult of diverse matrix. In any case, several classical literary sources emphasise the importance of the Cretan contribution to Greek ritual S. Morris —5 , which was partly based on the Minoan religion and partly on Near Eastern traditions. Morris —8, —4; Carter On the other hand recent studies, which discuss a bronze Syro- Palestinian sistrum from Syme in south-east central Crete Lebessi ; Lebessi and Muhly 97 , exemplify how the Near Eastern contribution to Cretan cult and ritual should be assessed.

The links with the Syro-Palestinian coast were perhaps severed for a short period, but were certainly re-established by the end of the tenth century. Interestingly, these two stages of interaction are loosely paralleled in the literary testimonies for the Phoenician presence in the Aegean Stampolidis c: — Although there is no space to embark on a comparative study of the relations of various Aegean regions with the Near East, the work of other scholars I.

Morris ; Whitley —24, esp. Several communities of Iron Age Crete were evidently open to and receptive of Near Eastern commodities as well as individuals, and it was this attitude of theirs that crafted the ambivalence with which Crete and the Cretans were presented to the audience of the Odyssey Sherratt Their successors, the aristocracy and the kosmoi of the archaic polis, advertised the traditionalism of their communities Whitley and were evidently not enthusiastic about conspicuous consumption, competitive display and Near Eastern commodities.

Morris —2. On the other hand, the collapse of Assyria has recently been seen as an agent that brought Near Eastern artefacts to the Aegean Guralnick Note, however, that the authors of the present chapter are sceptical about some points made by Guralnick, par- ticularly on the date of the Greek bronze statues.

Bernal, M. Bikai, P. Boardman, J. Borgna, E.

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Carter, J. Catling, H. Cavanagh, W. On December 13, , Jones was arrested and charged with lewd conduct, masturbating in a movie theater restroom near MacArthur Park in Los Angeles. Jones is on record as later telling his followers that he was "the only true heterosexual", but at least one account exists of his sexual abuse of a male member of his congregation in front of the followers, ostensibly to prove the man's own homosexual tendencies.

While Jones banned sex among Temple members outside marriage, he voraciously engaged in sexual relations with both male and female Temple members. On the final morning of Ryan's visit, Jones' wife Marceline took reporters on a tour of Jonestown.

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Stephan, Jim Jr. Three days before the tragedy, Stephan Jones refused, over the radio, to comply with an order by his father to return the team to Jonestown for Ryan's visit. Embassy in Georgetown in an attempt to receive help. The Guyanese soldiers guarding the embassy refused to let them in after hearing about the shootings at the Port Kaituma airstrip.

Stephan Jones was accused of being involved in the Georgetown deaths, and was placed in a Guyanese prison for three months. When Jonestown was first being established, Stephan had originally avoided two attempts by his father to relocate to the settlement. He eventually moved to Jonestown after a third and final attempt. He has since said that he gave in to his father's wishes to move to Jonestown because of his mother. He stated he will not watch the documentary and has never grieved for his father. Jim Jones Jr. He remarried and has three sons from this marriage, [] including Rob Jones, a high-school basketball star who went on to play for the University of San Diego before transferring to Saint Mary's College of California.

Lew and Agnes Jones both died at Jonestown. Agnes Jones was thirty-five years old at the time of her death. Lew Jones, who was twenty-one years old at the time of his death, died alongside his wife Terry and son Chaeoke. Suzanne Jones married Mike Cartmell; they both turned against the Temple and were not in Jonestown on November 18, After this decision to abandon the Temple, Jones referred to Suzanne openly as "my damned, no good for nothing daughter" and stated that she was not to be trusted.

Specific references to Tim Stoen, the father of John Stoen, including the logistics of possibly murdering him, are made on the Temple's final "death tape", as well as a discussion over whether the Temple should include John Stoen among those committing "revolutionary suicide". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Peoples Temple leader.

For other people named Jim Jones, see Jim Jones disambiguation. Crete, Indiana. Jonestown , Guyana. Marceline Baldwin Jones m. Further information: Peoples Temple. Belo Horizonte. Rio de Janeiro. Los Angeles. San Francisco. Santa Rosa. Main article: Peoples Temple in San Francisco. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The denomination conducted investigations in and , but did not find wrongdoings. No precedent existed for the Disciples to remove ministers. Disciples responded to the Jonestown deaths and massacre with significant changes for ministerial ethics and with a process to remove ministers. His mother's cousin Barbara Shaffer said that "there wasn't an ounce of Indian in our family" and that Jones' mother was Welsh. Los Angeles Times.

November 24, Retrieved February 23, Retrieved April 23, The Suicide Cult. Bantam Books, World of Criminal Justice, Gale. Retrieved October 10, American Experience, PBS. February 20, October Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. New York Times.

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Retrieved March 21, San Diego State University. Original material reprint. Department of Religious Studies. August 1, December 11, Published at The Jonestown Institute. Originally published Hearing the voices of Jonestown. Syracuse University Press, Bloomington: Indiana Press University, A Sympathetic History of Jonestown. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press. April 11, Retrieved August 23, Sports Illustrated. December 24, The Gazette. March 9, Witness to Jonestown.

Retrieved October 3, Retrieved November 17, May 1, Retrieved October 1, Chidester, David Indiana University Press. Flynn, Daniel J. ISI Books. Hall, John R. Gone from the Promised Land. Transaction Publishers. Hutchinson, Sikivu White Nights, Black Paradise. Infidel Books. Klineman, George; Butler, Sherman The Cult That Died. Putnam's Sons.

One Savior, Five Reactions (John 12:1–11)

Layton, Deborah Seductive Poison. Anchor Books. Levi, Ken Penn State University Press. Maaga, Mary McCormick Syracuse University Press. Naipaul, Shiva London: Hamish Hamilton. Reiterman, Tom; Jacobs, John Raven: The Untold Story of Rev. Jim Jones and His People. Rolls, Geoff Classic Case Studies in Psychology 3rd ed.

Wessinger, Catherine Seven Bridges Press. Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple.