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- History of Flagellation
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Although it has been understood in many ways—as a driving out of evil spirits, as purification, as a form of sadism , and as an incorporation of the animal power residing in the whip—none of these characterizations encompasses the whole range of the custom. In antiquity and among prehistoric cultures , ceremonial whippings were performed in rites of initiation, purification, and fertility, which often included other forms of physical suffering.
Floggings and mutilations were sometimes self-inflicted. Beatings inflicted by masked impersonators of gods or ancestors figured in many Native American initiations. In the ancient Mediterranean, ritual floggings were practiced by the Spartans, and Roman heretics were whipped with thongs of oxtail, leather, or parchment strips, some being weighted with lead. In the early Christian church, self-flagellation was apparently imposed as punishment and as a means of penance for disobedient clergy and laity.
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When plague ravaged Italy in , Raniero Fasani, also known as the Hermit of Umbria, organized processions of self-scourging flagellants who practiced the ritual. Adopted first in central and northern Italy, the movement developed into flagellant brotherhoods comprising laypersons as well as clergy and spread from Italy into Germany and the Low Countries in the midth century.
In the midth century, flagellants fearful of the Black Death sought by their own efforts to mitigate the divine judgment that they felt to be at hand. German flagellants became an organized sect and were a target of the Inquisition.
The practice gradually subsided, but in the 16th century the Jesuits temporarily revived lay interest in self-inflicted flagellation, especially in southern Europe. In North America an order of Hopi Indians engaged in flagellation until the late 19th century. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.
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Catalog Record: History of flagellation among different | HathiTrust Digital Library
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History of Flagellation
Click here. History of Flagellation by Anonymous ebook. Subjects History Nonfiction. A period will, sooner or later, arrive, at which the disciplining and flagellating practices even now in use and which have been so for so many centuries, will have been laid aside, and succeeded by others equally whimsical. And while the men of those days will overlook the defects of their own extravagant customs, or perhaps even admire the rationality of them, they will refuse to believe that the practices of which accounts are given in this work, ever were in use among mankind, and even matter of great moment among them.
Greco-Roman mystery religions also sometimes involved ritual flagellation, as famously depicted in the Villa of the Mysteries at Pompeii , apparently showing initiation into the Dionysian Mysteries. The Flagellation , in a Christian context , refers to an episode in the Passion of Christ prior to Jesus' crucifixion. The practice of mortification of the flesh for religious purposes has been utilised by members of various Christian denominations since the time of the Great Schism in Nowadays the instrument of penance is called a discipline , a cattail whip usually made of knotted cords, which is flung over the shoulders repeatedly during private prayer.
In the 13th century, a group of Roman Catholics, known as the Flagellants , took self-mortification to extremes. These people would travel to towns and publicly beat and whip each other while preaching repentance.
The nature of these demonstrations being quite morbid and disorderly, they were during periods of time suppressed by the authorities. They continued to reemerge at different times up until the 16th century. Pope Clement VI is known to have permitted it for this purpose in Martin Luther , the Protestant Reformer , regularly practiced self-flagellation as a means of mortification of the flesh. Her view was that loving acceptance of the many sufferings of daily life was pleasing to God, and fostered loving relationships with other people, more than taking upon oneself extraneous sufferings through instruments of penance.
Some members of strict monastic orders, and some members of the Catholic lay organization Opus Dei , practice mild self-flagellation using the discipline. As suffering and cutting the body with knives or chains matam have been prohibited by Shi'a marjas like Ali Khamenei , Supreme Leader of Iran ,  some Shi'a observe mourning with blood donation which is called "Qame Zani"  and flailing.
Certain rituals like the traditional flagellation ritual called Talwar zani talwar ka matam or sometimes tatbir using a sword or zanjeer zani or zanjeer matam, involving the use of a zanjeer a chain with blades are also performed.
People mourn the fact that they were not present at the battle to fight and save Husayn and his family. Flagellation is also used as a sexual practice in the context of BDSM. The intensity of the beating is usually far less than used for punishment. There are anecdotal reports of people willingly being bound or whipped, as a prelude to or substitute for sex, during the 14th century.
John Cleland 's novel Fanny Hill , published in , incorporates a flagellation scene between the character's protagonist Fanny Hill and Mr Barville. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Whipping as a punishment. For other uses, see Lashes disambiguation.
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For the cell appendage, see Flagellum. Campaigns against corporal punishment. By country or region. Opposition and resistance. Abolitionism U. Main article: Judicial corporal punishment. Main article: Corporal punishment Judaism. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Caning in Singapore. See also: History of Australia. Main article: Self-flagellation. Main article: Day of Ashura. Further information: Tatbir. Main article: Impact play. Cambridge University Press. Imperial Russia, ABA Journal. September , p. Retrieved 18 October Quote: " Provided , That flogging in the navy, and on board vessels of commerce, be, and the same is hereby, abolished from and after the passage of this act.
History of the United States Army. National Maritime Museum. Opus Dei Information Office. Retrieved 9 October The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Lawrence Toke In Herbermann, Charles ed. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. University Press of America.
Though he did not go to the ends that had Luther— including even self-flagellation— the methods of ritualistic observance, self-denial, and good works did not satisfy. Religious Melancholy and Protestant Experience in America.